various electrical factors affecting energy conservation are as below:
  1. Voltage Imblances
  2. Voltage Deviation
  3. Poor Connections
  4. Undersized Conductors
  5. Insulation Leakage
  6. Low Power Factor
  7. Harmonics.

We will study all these factor in detail below:

1.voltage imbalances:

Causes of Voltage Imblances:

  1. Improper Transformer Tap
  2. Single Phase Not Balanced
  3. Poor Connections
  4. Bad Conductors
  5. Transformer Grounds or Faults

Possible effects of Voltage Imblances:

  1. Motor Vibration
  2. 5% Imbalance creates 40% increase in Losses in Motors.

solutions:

Maintaining balanced Voltages through Servo Stabilizers.

    2. voltage deviation:

    Causes of Voltage DEVIATION:

    1. Improper Transformer Settings
    2. Incorrect selections of Motors.

    Possible effects of Voltage Imblances:

    1. Over-Voltages in motors
    2. Reduction in Efficiency, Power Factor and Life of Equipment
    3. Increase in Temperature.

    solutions:

    1.  Correct Transformer Settings
    2. Correct Motor Ratings & Motor Input Voltages.
      3. Poor connections:

      types of poor connections:

      1. Loose Busbar Connections
      2. Loose Cable
      3. Correded connections
      4. Poor crimps
      5. Loose or wornout Contactors.

      Possible effects of poor connections:

      1. Produces heat
      2. Leads to Voltage Drop and Voltage Imblances

      solutions:

      1. Use of Infrared Cameras to locate Hot spots & remove them.
        4. undersized conductors:

        causes:

        1. Poor Power Factor
        2. Increased Loads beyond Design

        Possible effects :

        1. Voltage drop
        2. Energy Wastage.

        solutions:

        1. Reducing the Loads by Conservation Scheduling.
          5. insulation leakage:

          causes:

          1. Degradation due to extreme temperature
          2. Abrasion
          3. Moisture
          4. Chemical.

          Possible effects :

          1. Leakage of currents to Grounds or another phase.
          2. Variable Energy Waste.

          solutions:

          1. Replacing Conductors, insulators.
            6. Low power factor:

            causes:

            1. Inductive Loads
            2. NonLinear Loads.

            Possible effects :

            1. Reduces current capacity
            2. Voltage Regulations
            3. Reduces Equipment Life.

            solutions:

            1. Installing Capacitor Banks (APFC).
              7. harmonics:

              causes:

              1. Office Electronics such as UPS etc
              2. HPSV, HPMV Discharge Lighting
              3. Electronic Ballast.

              Possible effects :

              1. Overheating of the Neutral, Motor, Transformer, Switchgear
              2. Voltage Drop
              3. Low Power Factor
              4. Reduced Capacity.

              solutions:

              1. Isolating sensitive Electronics from Noisy Circuit
              2. Taking care of equipment selection.